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Technically speaking a camera and the human eye operate in very similar ways. If you take apart the main components and functions of a camera in comparison to the human eye you can clearly illustrate their similarities. Your eye and the camera capture images using the same 3 principles. The main components of a camera are the shutter, the aperture, the lens and most importantly a light sensitive sensor to fix the image, such as a digital CCD (Charged Couple Device) and CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) sensor. You can compare the components of the anatomy of the eye based on their function.

Controlling the amount of light that enters the lens:

The iris coupled along with the pupil act like the shutter and aperture of the camera, which control how much light filters through.

Shutter- A device that allows light to pass for a determined period, exposing a photosensitive digital sensor to light in order to capture a permanent image of the scene. The speed of the shutter is controlled by a ring outside the camera, on which various timings are marked.

Aperture- the opening in a lens through which light passes to enter the camera. It is expressed in f-numbers like f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8 and so on to express the size of the lens opening, which can be controlled through the lens or the camera.

Focusing the light

The lens and cornea of the eye work on the same principles as the system of lenses on a camera, which help to refract and focus light onto the retina or the light-sensitive medium.

Capturing the image

For the human eye the most important component for capturing an image is the retina or for a camera the CCD or CMOS sensor. The smaller components that play an active role in receiving the fundamental colors (RGB) in the retina are two photoreceptors called rods and cones. The CCD & CMOS single sensors job in receiving the RGB colors operates in the same manner that cones receive the colors.

Rods-Responsible for vision at low light levels (scotopic vision-uses only rods to see, meaning the objects are visible, but appear in black and white). They do not mediate color vision, and have low spatial acuity.

Cones- They are responsible for color vision and function best in bright light, as opposed to rods, which work better in dim light. 3 Types of cones blue, green, and red.

The only clear similarity between the retina of the eye and the sensor of the camera are the size. Both are almost the same size, but not quite, the retina is 32mm in diameter, while a full frame sensor is 35mm in diameter. The shape of the sensor is flat, whereas he shape of the retina is curved, which creates a considerable difference in the sharpness of the image at the corners.



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